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The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was formed seventy years ago, on April 4, 1949, when the United States and eleven other countries met in Washington, DC to sign the North Atlantic Treaty. In commemorating the anniversary, Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg noted that “Our Alliance was created by people who had lived through two devastating world wars. They knew only too well the horror, the suffering, and the human and material cost of war. They were determined that this should never happen again.”



The Rwandan Genocide Revisited by Robert Gribbin

Books on Rwanda compiled by Robert Gribbin

When a Diplomat Disagrees with Policy by Judith Heimann

Can the European Union Save Multilateralism? by Mikael Barfod

Preventing an Israeil-Iran War by Alon Ben-Meir

Terrorism, Agreeing on the Basics by Ophir Falk

Swap-Shop: Time for a Deal in Kosovo? by Louis Sell


Reimagining Pakistan by Husain Haqqani

Book Reviews

Our Man: Richard Holbrooke and the End of the American Century  reviewed by Donald Camp

Reimagining Pakistan reviewed by Jon Dorschner



Books of Interest


Operation Vittles by Pru Bushnell

Arms Control, Reagan, and the Women of Filderstaff by Hans Tuch

Bonn Voyage by Richard Gilbert

A Rare Bloom in Beijing by Diane Johnston


Ambassador Jack and Rebecca Matlock Archives Open at Duke University

National Archives

The Department of State Reacts to Public Revelations of Intelligence Activities, 1964



The following “Moments in Diplomatic History” from ADST relate USAID experiences in Rwanda during and after the genocide 25 years ago.

George Lewis was named head of the USAID mission to Rwanda in 1996; he discusses the difficulties in reconciliation and the successes of USAID in a time and region marked by despair and tragedy.

Philip-Michael Gary’s career with USAID put him face-to-face with then-Vice President and Minister of Defense of Rwanda, Paul Kagame, in the aftermath of the infamous Rwandan genocide.

Bonaventure Niyibizi, a Foreign Service National (FSN) local staff member for USAID at the U.S. Embassy in Kigali from 1988 to 1997, recalled his experiences fighting for survival during the Rwanda genocide.



Politico | NATO at 70: What’s Next?

Quartz | Does the US Needs NATO

FSJ | From the FSJ Archive: Perspectives on NATO

The American Conservative | The Kosovo War at 20

The Atlantic | The End of the American Century What the life of Richard Holbrooke tells us about the decay of Pax Americana

National Security Archive | The US and the Genocide in Rwanda 1994: Evidence of Inaction

Council on Foreign Relations | U.S.-Russia Nuclear Arms Control 1949 – 2010


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